NSW Department of Education



An ongoing and deliberate misuse of power in relationships through repeated verbal, physical and/or social behaviour that intends to cause physical, social and/or psychological harm. Bullying can happen in person or online, and it can be obvious or hidden. Bullying behaviour is repeated over time. Single incidents and conflict or fights between equals, whether in person or online, are not defined as bullying.


Any repeated harassment, insults and humiliation that occurs through electronic mediums such as email, smartphones, social networking sites, instant messaging programs, chat rooms, web-sites and through the playing of online games. Cyberbullying is not one isolated nasty comment or post but a repeated action.


The safe, responsible and informed use of digital media and technology. It is about keeping information safe and secure but also about being responsible with that information and being respectful of other people online.

Digital citizenship

A good digital citizen is a person with the skills and knowledge to effectively use digital technologies in a positive way to participate in society, communicate with others, and create and consume digital content.

General capabilities

Broad collections of knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions described within the Australian Curriculum. Some of the general capabilities around ethical understanding and critical thinking are closely linked to good digital citizenship.

Image-based abuseĀ 

Occurs when an intimate, nude or sexually explicit image is distributed without the consent of those pictured. This includes genuine, altered and drawn pictures and videos. It can also include cartoon adaptations of an image. While most image-based abuse is about the sharing of images without consent, it can also include the threat of an image being shared.


The act of sending sexually explicit or naked messages, photos or videos electronically, primarily between smartphones, but can include internet applications such as SnapChat, email, or social networking sites.

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